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    The history of the village Novoselskoye.P.1
    [ Скачать с сервера (122.0 Kb) ] 21.04.2011, 14:53
                           The history of the village Novoselskoye
    Compiled by Trifonova A.V., a teacher of history
    1. Introduction.
    A brief description and a legend of the village Novoselskoye
    П The history of the village in documents and monuments.
    1. Archeological culture of Gumenita.
    2. Crossing the Danube.
    3. The Medieval history of the village – the Turkish-Tatar period.
    4. During the Russian-Turkish wars
    5. The history of formation of education in the village Novoselskoye.
    6. The history of collectivization and formation of the collective farm.
    7. Killing by hunger ("Holodomor”) of 1946-1947 in the village.
    8. Our village in the soviet period.
     9. Weaving – the main craft of Novoselskoye villagers.
    10. Novoselskoye cuisine.
    11. Microtoponimia of the village.
    Ш. Conclusion.
    A brief description and a legend of the village Novoselskoye.
     I decided to deal with this question because while studying encyclopedias about native land, I discovered a large number of inaccurate data in the history and population of this region. The most famous encyclopedia edition about our region is "The history of towns and villages of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Odessa’s region)”, published in Kiev in 1978. Let’s mention at first that the publication corresponds to its time. That’s why the genuine (original) historical information about our region was not reflected . It’s for the first, and for the second – many of archives data, editions and maps were a secret. I tried to reflect in this work all new data on the history of the village Novoselskoye of Reni region. Another source "Geographical dictionary of Bessarabia”, published in Bucharest by Zamfir Arbore in 1904, does not add anything new to the raised question, because the author copied everything that was made by Russian researchers in Bessarabian villages in 1927. And according to that information the history of the village started with the coming of Russian tsarist administration in 1812. With the help of my leader I managed to research all possible historical and cartographical sources and reflect our version about this village on this question. I think that while republishing encyclopedia of Ukrainian towns and villages it’s necessary to take into consideration the works of searching groups and local historians of all regions. During its rich history the village has got several names: Satu-Nou in Moldavian language, in Turkish "Enikei”, and a modern name Novoselskoye. The time of appearance of this settlement is lost in the past centuries. There exist different versions of defining made by scientists, the authors of manuscripts on this subject. Novoselskoye is situated in a picturesque corner. The village is surrounded from three sides by channels of the Danube, which form a peninsula of a rare beauty, it is situated on one of the terraces of the Danube. In the geological past the place where Novoselskoye is located now was at the bottom of the Sarmatian sea.
    1 Legend of the village Novoselskoye
    Not always our village had a present location. Once it was to the north from the present village. The area was blossoming, fertile until the Tatars attacked it. They burnt all on their way. They burnt the former village – Roshkan. And the inhabitants of the village were driven in slavery. Those who managed to escape, went down to the lake and established a new village – Enikyoj (from Turkish "new village”) The first inhabitant of a new village was called – Kyojbash (from Turkish it means "the head of the village”). The influence of Tatars and Turks affected the names of surnames, but the language and religion remained the same: the Moldavian language and the Ortodox religion Not only the Moldavians suffered from attacks of the Tatars and Turks but also the Bulgarians, Ukrainians, etc. People sought safety in flight. In due course the runaway Bulgarians settled in the village. They settled in the eastern part of the village, the Moldavians - in the western part. They were divided by border – an earthen shaft in the middle of the village. Each community had its own Head and customs. Communities were not on friendly terms with each other. Soon in the family of the Head of Moldavian community a fine young man grew up. He passionately fell in love with a daughter of the Head of Bulgarian community Their love knew no limits. As there was no communication between communities, the son of Moldavian Head decided to steal his Bulgarian bride. The deed was done and willy-nilly both Heads-fathers had to meet and agree about wedding. They had a beautiful wedding on which were both the Moldavians and the Bulgarians. So they drew closer to each other (became intimate), made friends and created mixed marriages. Soon the border between them – the earthen shaft, disappeared. As there were more Moldavians in the village, it got the moldavian name – Satu-Nou. About the former Bulgarian roots now tell only the surnames Dobriev, Georgiev, Dunaev, Trifonov, Todorov, Micov.
    П The history of the village in documents and monuments
    1. Archeological culture of Gumenita
    The first traces of human activity on the territory of our village belong to culture of Gumelnitsa During the works of expedition of Archeological institute of Academy of Sciences in the area of Novoselskoye village of Reni region of Odessa area in 1986 the site of an ancient settlement was revealed. Preliminary excavation showed that it belonged to the Thracian population of Bottom Podunovja of the second half of the 1-st millennium B.C. and the beginning of our era. The ancient settlement is situated on the site of cape limited from the floor part by a shaft and a ditch which rests were traced in 5,5 km to the south-west of the village Novoselskoye. On the site of excavation were found three complexes: two dug-outs and a hole. The hole represents the round-formed well passing . There were revealed the ashes layers, the limy crumb, slightly burnt slices of a plastering with the prints of a cane, bones of animals, ceramics. The fragment of the handle of a Rhodes amphora with a brand is an important find. The morphological principle applied to dating of early Rhodes amphoras, allows to date the brand to the 1-st chronological group of Rhodes brands of the end of the 1V – the beginning of the Ш centuries B.C. The modelled ceramics is presented by fragments of the vessels which form of orientation is characteristic for Ghetto ceramics of the 1V – the Ш cc. B.C. Here it is possible to classify the fragments of pots with divided broken-roller (cylinder) orientation, frequently in combination with handles-supporters. It’s characteristic for Ghetto ceramics a type of a pot with almost direct walls and flattened, slightly drawn back external edge. In all noted ceramics are inherent rather weak firing, smoothed down or slightly polished surface and qualitative enough structure of forming pulp. 2 The dugout №1 represented the wrong form in a plan pentagon. The entrance of an oval form was found from the south side. In filling of an entrance hole, at a benthonic part, in a dense loessial layer were met impregnations of ashes, bones of animals, stones. Fragments of modeled ceramics are extremely inexpressive. In a benthonic part of the dugout it is found an oval grain-grater. Further at the bottom before the entrance at the distance of 1,5 m from each other lay two flat calcareous stones. Interesting combinations of the material rests were found in one of these stones: bones of sheep limbs, a fragment of a modeled vessel and a bone of a human hand. It can be the sacrificial complex having the character of the so-called building victim. Modelled ware is still presented by fragments of Ghetto-Dacia’s ceramics. One of the fragments can be dated back to culture of multi-rollered ceramics. On the site of the ancient settlement there is also ceramics of culture of Gumelnitsa and fragments of Sabatin’s ware. On the basis of found fragments of thin-walled red clay ceramics of Roman time it is possible to assume that the top layer of the complex dates back to the first centuries of our era. More confidently, involving stratigraphy we may speak about functioning of a construction for a long period, probably with some break. It all allows to assume that the dugout construction concerns approximately to П-1 centuries B.C. The dugout №2 represented almost correct quadrangle in the plan. Here were found fragments of modelled ware, amphoras of Roman time, light-coloured clay lutery. Above, the central part of a dugout was occupied by a roundish deepening 2,5 m in diameter. It was filled with ashes. In this layer were found the fragments of red-clay and red-vanished ceramics, of light-coloured clay narrow-neck Roman amphoras and modeled ware. The rests of three loessial layers were above. The ceramics material and strong structure in filling of all the three layers is almost identical and can be dated to the Roman time. As a whole it is possible to ascertain uniformity of a complex of ceramics from dugout №2that allows to date all five layers of this construction to one chronological piece within the first centuries of our era. Thus preliminary results of excavation showed that chronological framework of the site of the ancient settlement Novoselskoye №1 cover a wide enough range – the end of the 1 and the beginning of the Ш centuries of our era.
    2. Crossing the Danube
    Researches of the Roman fortress at the village Orlovka (Kartal) Renijsky region of Odessa area confirm a hypothesis about existence in this area a crossing place of the Danube. In 1983 in the village Novoselskoye of the same area a fragment of a stone plate of Roman times with a part of dedicating records was found. In 1988 the Odessa security expedition found out in the village Novoselskoye a complex of settlements of a wide chronological range – from aneolit till the Middle Ages. Among them was a rather large ghetto settlement. Materials received as a result of excavation show the intensive life of the population of lower reaches of the Danube during the Roman times. The plentiful and various materials allow to judge about wide commercial relations of inhabitants of settlement at the village Novoselskoye. The place where the ghetto settlement is located is the most convenient for crossing the Danube in this area. From information of old residents archeologists learned that during draughty summer months the rests of a stone road come to surface. It is necessary to notice that in the 19 century and today this place was traditionally used for crossing the Danube. The further researches will allow to specify the received data. Unfortunately documentary data on the crossing at Noviodunum (Noviodunum-sit archeolog in Isaccea) are absent in the Byzantian sources. However the ruins of Tropheum Trajani (Tropheum Traiani) ( village Adamclisi, Romania) were known to the combatants of prince Svjatoslav (Svetoslav) , when coming to the Danube they were most likely to cross the Danube to Dobrudja only in the described place. A place on which the crossing monument was established is mentioned in the annals of Gerodot. The ancient Greek scientist wrote about the crossing of Percian tsar Darij with his army across the river Danube to Europe. 3 Later at the time of Roman empire conquest, emperor Trajan who was at war with the Darks crossed the river with his armies here. On the same place in all periods of Russian military history the most important transitions of Russian armies happened here: the combatants of prince Igor and Svjatoslav, Russian soldiers, liberators of the Balkans from Turkish yoke in the 19 century, the Soviet soldiers who set free the predunajsky countries in the Second World War. The obelisk was set up in this historical place more than 100 years ago. In 1887 the Odessa masters of pig-iron casting made this 15-meter monument and set it up on a three-meter embankment. By the way, the legend about this embankment remained in our corner of the world. It says: leaving on war, the Russian soldiers filled their caps with the native earth (soil) and having crossed the Danube they poured them out on the right bank of the river. Thus a high hill was formed, After the conclusion of victorious peace treaty the survived soldiers returned home. But before crossing the Danube back they took a cap of earth from the top of the hill. Many of soldiers didn’t return to the grey-haired waves of the Danube river. Their fighting friends carried only a hill top. And now this hill with the cut off top rises on the opposite bank, opposite the monument, being the unique witness of heroic events of the last centuries.
    3. The Medieval history of the village – the Turkish-Tatar period.
    Not always has the settlement its present disposition.The village was a little above present territory, approximately in 2 km to the north-west and was called Roshkan. When the tatar-mongol armies came back from the Central Europe after the conquest of Kiev Russia (Rusia kieana) through the pridunajsky lands, they set fire and devasted the village. The escaped inhabitants went downwards to pridunajsky lake Gyrdeshka and created a village under the name "Obluchitsa”. On the first map of the Moldavian princedom, published in Vienna in 1541 by Austrian geographer-cartographer George Rajhersdorf (Georg de Reichersdorf, 1495-1554), it is possible to find on the bank of the Danube a settlement Obluchitsa (Oblucita) – Novoselskoye It is not excuded that on the place of Obluchitsa there is the village Novoselskoye today (Satu-Nou) Reninsky redion; after all only here there always existed two fords: the first already known across the Danube and the second which passed through a small channel connecting lakes Yalpug and Kuguluj. The latter stopped to be used as a ford in 1969 in the connection of the construction of a dam-line Reni-Izmail. In the end of summer of 1538 Sulejman Magnificent (Soliman Magnificul – romana, Kanuni - limba turca) crossed the Danube to Isakchju across the bridge built on boats. Before that he asked Peter Raresh (Petru Rares) for a piece of land from Budshak to organize a section belt between Kiliej-Akkerman and woods of Tigecha (Tigheci). And here on April 4, 1588 we met a dealer Andrey from Obluchitsa who at the presence of the Ruler of Moldova Peter (Petru Schiopul) bought a village Dregenesht from the abbot of a monastery of Galata (manastirea Galata, Iasi) Anastas (egumenul Anastasie Crimca) for 15 thousand asparovs. The largest expert on medieval Moldova Alexander Gontsa considers that Obluchitsa settled down as a town on the territory of modern Renijsky region. In the beginning of the XVП century the village was mentioned in documents of Turkish sultans. Here is a written order of sultan Ahmed 1 (Ahmed 1, 1590-1617) to nazir of Isakchi Mustafa in April 1609, which says the following:”With the envoy to my doorstep of happiness Moldavian Ruler notified that your people besides burning the village Satu-Nou, stole the cattle of the inhabitants of villages Ren and Kalich and those are villages of Moldova. You let your men offend each of people of the above mentioned Ruler who were sent to my threshold of happiness when they crossed the Danube. Thus Moldova is under my protection and there is no my imperial command about intervention and violence over Moldavians. I order: When you receive this order, concern as it is necessary to this problem. Pay attention to the citizens from now on and henceforth don’t do much harm to the territory and population of Moldova. Don’t allow encroachments and oppressions. Don’t let torment a Moldavian when he passes the Danube there and back and in other cases. Don’t steal his sheep and other animals. If , on the contrary to my great command, your people will continue oppressions and encroachments, punish them publicly and stop them, so that it won’t be repeated again. Forbid to force and plunder the Moldavians”. A bit later we met Satu-Nou (Enikioj – Enichioi) in the official fiscal register of villages included in vakif (district) of Isaccha of the sultan Osman П (Osman al П-ea 1618-1622) from July 25, 1645. The information from June-July 1699 of sultan Mustafa П in which he addressing Moldavian Ruler Antiohu Kantemir concerned the restoration of borders of Isacchijsky district (vakif) is also rather interesting. It says: "… earlier nogajsky tatars came here and settled in villages Tomarova (Timarova – present Reni), Cherchelush, Barta, Enikioj”.
    4. During the Russian-Turkish wars.
     On a general map of Bessarabia made by Russian geographers, from plans of the made shootings in 1817, 1818, 1819 we can find Novoselskoye under the name :Enikioj” , from Turkish it is translated as "eni” – new, "kioj” – village. The territory of the village Novoselskoye long since belonged to the Old Slavic lands, which were a part of Kiev state and then the Moldavian princedom. But since the XV1 century this territory was under domination of Turks for 300 years. In 1828 there was a conflict between Russia and Turkey In 1828 there was a military conflict between Russia and Turkey concerning Turkish possession of Balkans, the Black Sea lowlands and other territories. In 1828 Russia declared of war with Turkey. Military actions began in April of 1828 in two directions: Caucasian’s and Balcanian one. Russian troops, moving through Valahia crossed the Prut and led the attack to the River Danube. On 27, May, 1828 Russian Army crossed the Danube near the village Novoselskoye. Two columns of Russian Army under the command of Nikolai I directed across the Danube to Isakcha. The first column headed through Bolgrad to Cotlovina, Plavni, Novoselskoye. The second column directed through Ismael, Necrasovka, across lakes Cugurlui and Jalpug. Russian Army remained there for 3 months, while General Rupert’s troops were preparing suitable places of crossing across the Danube. The crossing was on 27, May, 1828 under the command of General Wilgelnstein. Nikolai I watched it through binoculars. Russian geographer P.P.Semionov-Tian-Shansky, describing St.Pherapont’s monastery, wrote that during Russian troops were under artillery fire of Turkish army under the command of Hassan Pasa. In the honour of Russian soldiers who were successful during military actions across the Danube in 18_____ the monument was set, it is on the bank of the river even now. There is a notice: "Here on 28 May 1828 Emperor Nikolai I showed the Russian Soldiers the way to the fame and victory”. By the evening of that day the crossing finished successfully. Being glad about the actions, Tsar signed the order according to which a monastery by St.Pherapont should be built on the place, where the Tsar’s tent was (it was the day of saint martyr Pherapont). The monastery was being built for 9 years in account of Russian Tsar. The altar, icons and other worship things were brought from St.Petersburg. The ceremony of sacrament was in 1837. At first it was only a chapel. Its area extended with time. In 1910 when there was a monk Arsenii Ursul, one more church was built: Pocrovy of God’s Mother. The area of the monastery was 5 hectares. Besides 2 churches there was one two-storeyed building, one-storeyed building, cells, bath, 2 cellars. The monastery owned 2 hectares of the garden, 1 hectare of kitchen garden and 40 hectares ploughed field in the north-west part of the village. Till 193_____ the monastery was male, and then it was female till 1947. Nina Bulgary was an abbess there. There were 12 nuns in the female monastery. After the war communists destroyed it and the buildings for the farm were built out of the carried stone.
    5. The history of development of education in Novoselskoye village.
     During the reform of 1861 the territory of Novoselskoye village was under Romanian power because after Crimea War according to Paris treaty (Bolgrad, Cahul and Ismael areas were given to Romania). In 1878 due to Russian Victory near Plevna according to Berlin peaceful treaty these areas were returned to Russia since 1878. Till 1917 the teaching was in Russian in the village Novoselskoye which was included into Russian Imperia. The language of the main part of population – Moldavian – was not used in education. In April, 1917 a gathering of gubernian teachers was held. Most participants expressed for the reform of educational system, for the forming of unified public school and introducing of free elementary education on native Moldavian language. The main characteristic of rural population is level of literacy. The percent of population that had elementary grammar knowledge was just 6% in 1897. The lower level of grammar had only Gipsy population. This situation is explained by two causes: government policy, which did not encourage and blocked spreading of education based on national languages from the last quarter of XIX century, on the other hand there was lower economical development and as consequence there was lower population life level, because of this population did not aspire to receive education on native or Russian languages. "Literacy” often meant only ability to write a proper name of oneself. In 1879 the first teacher Mina Platonocich Zaviriucha came to village Novoselskoye. He was a strict but attentive teacher. Till recent time he was remembered by local villagers as an authoritative teacher who educated in children independence, capacity to understand what kindness is and what evil is. The school was attended by 52 boys. And this quantity was necessary for 4th grades which were taught in one room. The first of pupils were: Caraguyar Andrei Dmitrievich (1870) Stamati Ivan Mihailovich (1872) Mihailesku Petr Georgievich (187___) Caraceban Ivan Nicolaevich (1872) Daali Fedor Dmitrievich (1873) Panta ivan Fedorovich (1874) Nidelku Nikolai Panteleevich (1873) In 2 years the teacher from Bolgrad came to village to teach girls. Her name was Zinovia Calistratovna Popovich, (she was novitiate in female monastery in Bolgrad in past, then she returned to Bolgrad her native land in the vale of years and her further life is unknown). She taught 14-16 girls. The first teacher died in 1913, he was buried in village Novoselskoye but his tomb was not saved. The First World War began in 1914. The education failed. In 1918 our region joined again in structure of Royal Romania. Romanian people were surprised by high level of statements here at school. The strengthened and accelerated Romanization of Bessarabia began soon and school became its cores of objects because according to the authorities of Romania through Romanized school should have passed new generation of citizens-bessarabs. All system of initial and secondary education started to be reconstructed on the basis of the Romanian royal decrees. They were democratic enough. So, elementary schools should have used language of the population making the majority in given district. The education was held in Romanian language from 1918 till 1940. According to the law, children must have gone to elementary school. Teachers from different cities and villages of Romania came in our village. There was shortage of qualified teachers during the process of Romanization of educational institutions of Bessarabia. It was enough to take the oath of the civil servant of Romania, to be able to speak in Romanian or to be connected with national movement of the Proromanian orientation for reception of a teacher's place. The school building was opposite the church. It was the low clay building whitewashed by a lime. It was four-year system of education at the Romanian power up to 1939. And only before war in 1939-1940 the education became seven-year one. The quantity of teachers was 13 during this period: Mihail Georgiu was the first principal of school in Novoselskoye, his wife Maria Georghiu, Savva Rashkov, Burchinsky, Cojocaru, Poshirca, Armeanu and others. Teachers from native village are working along with Romanian teachers during the period from 1930-1940. They got education in pedagogical college in Cimpul-Lung-Moldovenesk in Romania. Among them were Voinov Sergei Dmitrievich (1918), Bornea Andrei, Dimitriu Fedor (1910) and his sister Dimitriu Nina (1906). Memoirs of fellow villagers describe: Dimitriu Nina supervised over the children's organization trainees in Satu-Nou, which was submitting to the Romanian Kuzists party. This party supported I.Antonesku. Konstantin Floresku was the person of high culture (he had the house along the street Schkolnaia 1 in our village) and was the principal of the school these years. After departure of mister Floresku, Domnul Georgiu became the director there. According to documents, Georgiu Mihail was appointed the teacher of elementary school. He was native from Vulkaneshti (Moldova). His parents came from prosperous townspeople. However war did not give the chance to them to develop family business. They opened small restaurant in the center of Reni, but during first two years they were compelled to sell everything and move again to Vulkaneshti. At this time their elder son Mihai finished study and was sent to Novoselskoye by General Management of Elementary education of Romania. The same year Georgiu was appointed the director of elementary school in Novoselskoye. In 1940 he was called in army. The inhabitant of village Voinov Andrei was appointed as temporary director. The village was under the Soviet power in 1940 and the above-named visiting teachers went back to Romania because of their political convictions. The school passed to Russian language of education till 1941. The former teachers came back after coming to power of the Romania (1941-1944). Georgiu was restored on a post of the director after returning from army in December, 1941. Teaching was conducted in the Romanian language. The school was attended by 400-500 children. Teaching was held in three buildings: along the street Schkolnaia opposite the church, along the street Gagarin near the church there were 2 buildings. Children studied in two shifts. Teachers who originally came from village worked at school till 1944 and then left for Romania, being afraid of political repressions. Romanians put the base of new school under the Italian project in 1942. The building was finished in 1948 at the Soviet power by the building materials brought from Romania in 1942-1944. Post-war education. On August, 20th, 1944 our village was released from German invaders and the Romanian authorities. Despite difficulties of military and post-war time, the building of new school which began at Romanians was finished. Education became obligatory for all children of school age to seven classes inclusive. There was a shortage of teachers. The former teachers left for Romania. Preparation of new shots of a teaching from local people began; teachers came from other areas. Study went at full speed: children studied, adults liquidated their illiteracy also. The teachers who were native from village worked at school from 1944 till 1950: the art teacher was Sherban Fedor Ivanovich (1927), the teacher of first classes was Cojacaru Elena Ivanovna (1928), and also teachers coming from regions of Odessa worked there: the teachers of first classes were Genev Dmitrii Konsatantinovich (1914) and Kotsofan Valentina Ivanovna (1925), the teacher of military science was Kotsofan Fedor Ivanovich (1922), the teachers of first classes also were married couple Dimitrov Ivan Fedorovich and Dimitrova Maria Matveevna (from their memoirs: we arrived together with children from village Ogorodnoe region of Bolgrad on a cart in which the cow was harnessed). The education was held in Moldavian language. The special grammar was created with use of the Slavic alphabet. Principals were Moskvin and Govorov. In 1950 Novoselskoye became unique village in area where children could receive secondary education. Pupils came from villages of regions Reni and Ismael. The boarding school for residing was opened for children. A lot of work and efforts should have been enclosed to teachers for an educational level rising. I place a passage from the newspaper "The Danube dawns” dated from 08.03.1969 (see the appendix). Article tells about one of the first Soviet teachers of village Novoselskoye Kotsofan V. I. School in the updated building was already finished: 16 graduates were in 1945, 26 graduates were in 1962 and 97 graduates were in 1965. There was a first graduation of pupils with secondary education - 21 persons in 1953. It was the first ten-grade standard school with the Moldavian language of teaching in the Odessa area. Subsequently to 1970 270 graduates of Novoselskoye high school finished higher educational institutions. There were such celebrities among them: Karacheban D.S. - honored artist of Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Karacheban V.F. - announcer of the Odessa television, Finiti S.O. - actor of Moldova.
     6. History of collectivization and collective farm formation.
    There were no landowners in village ever and all peasants were owners of their lands, but not all owned the equal areas. There were prosperous peasants, medium peasants and poor men in village. Peasants who didn't like to work were poor men as usual. In 1944 the Soviet power was established in our village. Karacheban Kondraty Danilovich was selected to be the first chairman of village council. The regional authorities demanded the big work from the chairman, deputies and rural active workers. Work consisted in drawing up of lists of village inhabitants with instructions of the ground areas, a cattle livestock on each inhabitant. Preparation for collectivization was conducted, peasants already knew about it. Many competent inhabitants of village had the information that collectivization would be realized as in Russia and tried to sell a part of cattle and their lands in order not to appear in the list of prosperous peasants. At this time there were no mass media in the village and people learned the latest news on rural meetings which were held under instructions of a regional management. Peasants together with the families worked, grew up cattle, grew up wheat and corn on fields. They cultivated vegetables on inundated soils: sweet pepper, eggplants, cabbage. All these vegetables were well-groomed and gave a good harvest only at watering. Vegetable plantations were settled down on the bank of reservoirs and were watered by means of an interesting construction under the name "dolap”. Dolap represented itself as a wooden wheel in diameter of 5 meters which was adjusted on two high columns. It was fixed about 30 capacities from a tin on a wheel under the name cofa. The wheel was put in action by means of a horse. The wheel rotated, and water, getting on a wooden trench, watered vegetables. Watering was effected only in the morning and in the evening; plants could suffer if watered at hot hours. In 1947 collectivization began in our village. Three collective farms were created: collective farm of a name of Lenin, collective farm "The Bolshevik”, fishing collective farm of a name of Shchorsa. The biggest on the area and quantity of people was collective farm of a name of Lenin. On the second place there was a collective farm "The Bolshevik”. The collective farm of a name of Shchorsa was the smallest; it basically was fishing and processed about 200 hectares of lands. Collective farms were created on a voluntary basis and the poorest and landless people joined in collective farm. Chairmen were appointed from active peasants, but this post could be got also by people who were business only in words sometimes. People from our village who even now are remembered only with good words were the first chairmen of collective farms. These were: Nedeliu Andrei Ivanovich, Keibash Sava Vasilievich, Pereverziev Stepan Ivanovich. Later medium peasants began to join in collective farms. Inhabitants started to pass to the collective farms horses, sheep, cows, vehicles and all available agricultural stock. These people also handed over their lands. The collective farm included also the lands earlier belonging to those who ran away to Romania: the priest, the chief of a gendarme post, mayor, the notary and others who were afraid of the Soviet power. Among prosperous peasants there were families which did not want to join in collective farm. In village council lists of prosperous families were made which were called as kulaks and which were subjected to de-kulakization. Kulaks were specially assessed with heavy taxes; frequently they were not able to pay them. In that case village judicial executors took away at such families working cattle on account of unpaid taxes. After such actions of the authorities some medium and prosperous peasants wanted to join in collective farm, but they were not accepted any more. The list of the most prosperous peasants was made in village council (and they were the most diligent and hardworking peasants), who were subjected to deportation to Siberia. These families (20 of them only from our village) were woken up among night in the frosty and snowy winter 1947. They should gather in an hour and take only those things that could be taken away on sledge. They were taken to the station Frekatsej. There about 100 of families gathered at the station from all region. All of them got on a train and were taken away to Siberia, to the Tomsk region. There were families from our village: Bornea, Rashku, Karaguiar, Chebotarev, Karacheban, Stamati, Reaukov and others. Property of these people and their houses were carried over to collective farm. Gradually collective farms were integrated, there were producing units, brigades and cattle-breeding farms. In 1950 the collective farm of a name of Lenin and collective farm "The Bolshevik” united in one collective farm of a name of Lenin. The collective farm board settled down in the house of a deportated kulak Reaukov, and board of fishing collective farm of a name of Shchorsa was in the house of the former kulak Cebotarev. In collective farm named after Lenin the chairman become Malyha Trofim Nichitovich-the communist, in the past the miner, who had rather vague idea about agriculture. The main accountant was Caragay Dmitrii Grigorievich. The main agriculturist was processed by oxen and by horses, about tractors only dreamt. After 1950 the mashine and tractor station is created in the village Plavny. It was the state enterprise, serving collective farms by tractors, lorries and hook-on combines. At the mashine and tractor stations have been opened cources of machine operators where young men received specialities of the driver, the tractor operator and combine operator. This technics processed the lands of all collective farms of this area. There was a political department into which people from the bodies, watching quality of the works which had been done by machine operators.T heir main purpose-to prevent the government of the USSR the mashine and tractor stations are disbanded and are reproduced main and operating repair of tractors and cars. The collective farm extends and enriches. The first combine operators were: Burujiu Haralampii Vasilievich Stanciu Georgii Ivanovich Nedelichy Nicolay Alexandrovich Nedelky Nicolay Ivanovich The first tractor operators were: Keibas … Fedorovich Stamati Nicolay Davidovich Caraceban Ilia Mihailovich Cocosh Petr Ivanovich Mavarin Mihail Ivanovich Metioglo Ivan Mihailovich Cevdar Icov Ivanovich The first heads of tractor brigades were: Cazanacli Afanasii Ilich, Andreev Georgii Constantinovich, Tasmali Ivan Ivanovich, Damaschin vasilii Vasilievich.
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